winemaker's blog

2010 one of the coolest year on record for Washington?

Monday, September 20th, 2010

Quick post to show you the last 41 years of cumulative GDD data (Yakima Valley) that I got today:

Year  Cum GDD (ºF)
1984             2,232
1971             2,240
1975             2,240
1999             2,244
1980             2,247
1983             2,271
1976             2,272
1970             2,324
1974             2,326
1978             2,352
1981             2,354
1993             2,367
1996             2,368
1982             2,370
1973             2,406
2008             2,418
1972             2,442
1995             2,475
2007             2,488
2000             2,492
2002             2,526
1977             2,551
1989             2,560
1997             2,568
2001             2,619
1986             2,632
1991             2,645
1985             2,653
2005             2,653
2006             2,660
2009             2,663
1979             2,739
1988             2,751
2004             2,778
1994             2,806
1998             2,877
1990             2,884
1992             2,900
2003             2,910
1987             2,979

 Exciting table, no? The warmest years were 1987, 2003, 1992, 1990 and 1998. The coolest were 1984, 1971, 1975, 1999 and 1980. Right now we are trailing slightly behind 1999 so we could have the coldest year on record. What does that mean for quality? Well, it will really depends of night time temperature I believe. If we can hang our fruit without a night time frost for another 5 to 6 weeks, we will have a great vintage like 1999. If not, we will have a repeat of 1984 which, I have heard, was a disaster.

Harvest on hold

Tuesday, September 14th, 2010

Finally a good week of sunshine but let’s not get used to that. Temperatures are dropping in the low 70’s again by the week end. So far our growing season looks awfully like 1999 which, I recall, was a fantastic year for Washington wines. Usually cool years (like 2010 or 1999) are very beneficial to high acid and long hang time favoring very flavorful and intense wines. That’s the theory at least. I am still very nervous remembering the hard frost event we had last year in early October (11th or so) which just stopped the growing season (See this link for this bad memory). It was OK last year because we had a warm year and were ahead, but it would be really ugly if this would happen in a cool year such as the one we are witnessing in 2010. Stay tuned. Below is the all powerful and telling GDD chart.

2010 Growing Season GDD

Let’s set the record straight on Washington and Riesling

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010

Las week I came across a grocery store wine sales report that outlined the main varietals and the main wine regions sold in US grocery stores (note the data does not include sales from restaurants and other non grocery stores). The grocery store data is very indicative of what is going on in the market place but not all perfect (big disclaimer). Nevertheless, let me tell you that Washington and Riesling are looking pretty good (we like that at Pacific Rim) – the data is for the past 52 weeks total dollars sold:

Main Wine Regions:

- Big #1: California: $3,000M

- Next three: Australia: $429M, Italy: $305M, Washington: $257M

- Next Six: Chile: $87M, France: $85M, Argentina: $55M, Germany: $55M, New Zealand: $52M, Spain $42M

I know this is only grocery, but look at WA, not bad at all in this channel no?

Main Varietals:

- Big #1: Chardonnay: $942M

- Next three: Cabernet: $558M, Merlot: $423M, Pinot Gris/Grigio: $332M

- Next Six: Pinot Noir: $252M, Sauvignon Blanc: $195M, White Zinfandel: $229M, Riesling: $136M, Syrah: $136M, Zinfandel: $118

Well, looks like Riesling is about to -or will soon-  pass Syrah. Next “varietal” to beat is White Zinfandel!

First look at crop size

Friday, August 6th, 2010

Now is the time to look at yields and estimate the size of the harvest. We are practically done estimating at Pacific Rim and we think we will have a normal yield with some vineyards affected with some shatter (shatter = less berries per cluster due to bad fruit set). All in all we are happy with the size of harvest and the cooler weather which will probably delay harvest 8 to 12 days.

I have also received today a crop estimation from the Washington Association of Grape Grower (hence the post) and it confirms the delay in ripening due to cool weather. The current estimate for total crop for Washington is 156,000 tons (10 million cases) which would be flat to slightly up vs actual 2009 harvest. Chardonnay would still be #1, Riesling #2, Merlot #3 and Cabernet #4. All top four varietal would be slightly down except Merlot (be ready for some cheap Merlot out there!). Major growth in volume is projected to come from Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah (Syrah is struggling in the market place, so expect bit of oversupply) and Cabernet franc (what in heaven is going on with Cab Franc +1,500 tons?).

Nice to meet you Mr Alcohol Indulger

Tuesday, August 3rd, 2010

The data monster is coming out of its cave again after chewing on a great report released by Gallup looking at alcohol consumption in the USA (full article here). Plenty of fun data in this report highlighted below:

  • 67% of american drink alcohol, 33% do not. The archetype of the non drinker is over 55, has less than a high school degree, makes less than $20K/yr, attend church weekly and is Protestant – can’t wait to meet you Mr non-drinker. The classic alcohol indulger is young, college educated, seldomly go to church, make more than $75/yr and is agnostic – you sound a bit better Mr indulger but you sound too much like Gordon Gekko.
  • Beer is still the #1 preferred alcoholic drink in the USA (wine is #2, spirits #3). The archetype beer drinker is male, under 34 from the midwest while the archetype wine drinker is female, 50 and older, from the East coast (guess who I am hanging out with? hint: I am more comfortable at the Opera than at a Rodeo). Women from the south also ranks the highest for spirit consumption – go southern girls!

Pacific Rim grape sourcing 2010: the facts

Wednesday, July 21st, 2010

Harvest is approching and it is time for us to look at our grapes sourcing and make sure all is in balance (i.e. we have just enough of everything for each wine we make). Below is a synopsis of what harvest will look like for us:

- 3,181 tons of grapes or 203,000 cases of wines – our largest harvest yet

- 92.2% Riesling, 97.1% White grapes (Gewurzt and Chenin). We have a little Gamay coming this year (plus our usual Barbeara, Sangiovese and Primitivo blend)

- 1/3 of our Riesling from Wallula 2/3 from the lower Yakima Valley

Next week I will be touring all our blocks to confirm quality and volume. Ready, set, Go!

Riesling Rendez Vous Highlights

Tuesday, July 20th, 2010

Last week end was the biennium pilgrimage at the Riesling Rendez vous in Seattle hosted by Chateau St Michelle and Loosen wines. The event is a great oppotunity to meet many Riesling producers and to talk Riesling for three days. Of course there is much host propaganda during this event, but overall it is genuinely a good thing for Riesling in general.

The who’s who of the Riesling world was attending with some of my Riesling heroes: Clemens Busch, Andre Ostertag, Egon Muller, Etienne Hugel, Fred Loimer, Nik Weis, Stuart Pigott, Bruce Sanderson, Bruce Schoenfeld, Anne Trimbach and many more… So many great folks sharing one passion: Riesling.

I had many favorite wines but here are some of the highlights for me:

- GERMANY/MOSEL: Clemens Busch GG 2008 Marienburg: Some botrytis, acacia, very fruity and young, clean, very Mosel though quite dry ++++

- GERMANY/SAAR: Sankt Urbans Hof okfener bockstein: honey, jasmine, sl reductive, very complex, my type of wine +++1/2+

- GERMANY/MOSEL: Loosen Urziger Wurzgarten 2008: bit tight, botrytis, high end kabinett style, some greaty potential, sweet +++1/2+

- NEW ZEALAND/MALBOROUGH: Framingham 2009: Very nice, clean, jasmine, pleasant, sweet, german in style with a new world twist. Medium Sweet +++

- GERMANY/NAHE: Schafer Frolich Felseneck 2008 Spatlese: Sweet and wild ferment like, leather, cane sugar, elegant and racy. Very unique and modern. medium sweet. +++

- AUSTRIA/WACHAU: Domain Wachau 2008 Smaragd: Very floral, Austrian by birth, almost Gewurzt like, yeasty, hot and dry ++1/2+

- NEW ZEALAND/MALBOROUGH: Villa Maria 2009 Reserve: sl dusty, mineral, yeasty, very nice acid, on the sweeter end of dry ++

- FRANCE/ALSACE: Hugel 2004 “Jubilee”: buttery, some age and showing Alsatian, yellow hue, clean, some petrol, complex, dry ++

Those were the top wines but many more were great. Our Biodynamic Wallula showed very well in the Organic/Biodynamic panel!

Wallula Picnic

Tuesday, June 29th, 2010

Glorious day last week for a picnic at Wallula Vineyard with a nice group of friends from Texas. A refreshing menu of fresh cheeses, orzo mint pasta salad, bread from the excellent Ken’s bakery in Portland, cold cuts and a fantastic pate de campagne. Of course, plenty of Rieslings but, one small problem we forgot the glasses! Never mind, the team started cutting plastic bottles! We ran out of bottles to cut, so I had to use a bottle of Riesling made from Organic grapes for a glass – a fine container for a hot lunch under the tent!

A cool spring in the Northwest

Thursday, June 17th, 2010

Spring should almost be over on the West coast of the United States but we are witnessing a fairly cool 2010 influenced by the infamous El Nino slowing down our growing season – this is a particularly good thing for us Riesling producers (we like cool germanic weather). Physiologically our vines are now blooming and we are probably about two weeks behind a normal season – This is also great for Riesling because delayed maturity promote long hang time and long hang time = better flavor development. I still expect harvest to be starting in 14 weeks or so.

Below is the GDD chart (for more on GDD - you will also see the 2009 chart in comparison)

Wallula Biodynamic vertical

Tuesday, May 25th, 2010

We were hosting a biodynamic tasting at our offices in Portland. Pacific Rim was pouring a vertical of Wallula Vineyard Biodynamic Rieslings (picture above). This was an opportunity for me to taste through the first three vintages (2007-2008-2009) of the magnificent Wallula Vineyard and reflect on our winemaking and our progress. Remember that those wines are biodynamic wines (vs made from biodynamic grapes) which is pretty rare as I saw yesterday where most of the producers present were pouring made from biodynamic grapes wines. Nothing is added to those wines (no yeast, no acid, no nothing) and they are certified biodynamic. Wallula is probably one of the most thoughtful Riesling planting in the USA with a special trellis system, German clones and all biodynamically farmed (

2007 Wallula Riesling BioD: It was our first year and were still learning about selecting the best rows and We might have picked a bit late. The resulting wine is very nice though may be missing some acid and it is rich in alcohol. It is rebalanced by a very low residual sugar (0.7%?). Overall a great wine but not the best we have made I would think. Would love to taste this in 5 years to see how it is aging.

2008 Wallula Riesling BioD: This was a cool vintage and also the first vintage we started to pick the grapes at different time (fractionnal picking). The wine was difficult to ferment and stuck at 1.2% residual sugar. It is a more complex version with some serious aging potential.

2009 Wallula Riesling BioD: Whao, may be our best vintage. It is zippy (we picked quite early) with a lower ethanol content (12.5%). We started to stop the fermentation early for a fraction of the blend so we could use that fraction to blend back into a dry fraction aged on lees. This technique  seems to be very appropriate for our conditions. This is a complex and hedgy wine. Very interesting and thoughtful.

Overall this was a solid line up and I could taste the vineyard through each wine. The common thread reflecting the site was the lovely floral nose of each wine. The  importance of the picking date and the amount of fractionnal picking (picking the same vineyard at different rippeness levels) really had a tremendous impact. I can’t wait to do a 10 year vertical with the press to taste what I think is one of the most thoughtful Riesling in North America.

A classic pairing – Riesling and blue cheese

Monday, May 24th, 2010

The latest fantastic review of our 2007 Selenium Vin De glaciere by Wine and Spirit (92 points and one of the best Riesling in america), prompted me to open a bottle of this divine beverage last week end. It was a bit of a last minute thought but I had a piece of Fourme d’Ambert in the refrigerator (this is a great blue cheese if you do not know it) and this sounded like the right opportunity to rediscover an old classic pairing. The fourme I’ve unwrapped was not old so it was quite creamy and soft. The pairing was just superb, I highly recommend this classic pairing if you want to impress your friends and show them why pairing food with the right wine is a life changing experience.


Sweet Riesling vertical

Wednesday, May 12th, 2010

The recent 89 points score in the wine spectator for our 2009 Sweet Riesling gave me the impulse for tasting through a vertical of Sweet Riesling from 2006 to 2009 (4 vintages). This would be since we’ve started making this wine. The inspiration for the Sweet Riesling came from German sweeter Rieslings that few people have been making in the US. We had to put a US twist on the wine due to our growing conditions (more sunlight, more heat…). I must say I am a bit curious to find out how they are holding up with age…

2006 Sweet Riesling – rated 88 points Wine Spectator (Harvey Steiman): Great pale color still for this older wine, nice nose, fresh as can be. Great acidity on this wine, aging very gracefully, still very young. This has still California fruit in it by the way so it has no appellation on the front. This is still a very serious Riesling – impressive and complex. pH: 2.96, TA: 0.81, RS: 7%

2007 Sweet Riesling – rated 89 points Wine Enthusiast (Paul Gregutt): Our first wine in our new winery in Eastern Washington. Color is quite gold, some more age character, nose is still fresh, very Riesling like, nice honey, feels a bit more phenolic. Not as nice as 2006, more Washington in style – less Germanic. Probably my least favorite right now. This is the first year we also lowered our total sulfite content – may be some correlation between the way it ages and the amount of preservative? pH: 2.97, TA: 0.81, RS: 6.8%

2008 Sweet Riesling – rated 89 points Wine Enthusiast (Paul Gregutt): Interesting nose, on the floral side, color is going the way of the 2007 but not quite golden yet, lively mouthfeel that makes the wine quite refreshing. In the same vein than 2007 though may be a tid bit more lively. Finishes quite dry with notes of botrytis. pH: 3.03, TA: 0.80, RS: 6.5%

2009 Sweet Riesling – rated 89 points Wine Spectator (Harvey Steiman): Great color, loaded with apricot, a very fine and fruity nose, fresh, nice acid, this is a dynamite wine, great acid, whao – Did we make that? pH: 2.99, TA: 0.72, RS: 7%

Overall I am very impressed with how those wines are holding. The 2007 is probably on its way down but the 2006 is still very lively (would be interesting to see how it will evolve in the next 12-24 months). I must say that 2009 is a very nice vintage and drinking just amazingly well right now. Fun exercise to line them up all like this – I’ll do that again soon with the Dry Riesling.

Quintessential Riesling profile

Thursday, May 6th, 2010

This week I gave a small talk in front of a group of importers at the winery in West Richland. One of my assignment was to give them an idea of where Washington fits in the Riesling world. I went on to describe what in my mind the major characteristics of most Rieslings are. As I was doing this, it came to my mind that I could use a frame work to place Rieslings in some type of matrix and that it would help me to relate where Washington fits in comparison to other regions. Here is the way it came to me after the fact:

1- Riesling’s purity: Riesling’s elegance can be rather quickly destroyed by a heavy handed style. Riesling has a form of compulsive shyness and as soon as it put in contrast with another aromatic element it leaves the stage (“sorry, you are big and obnoxious, you have fun without me”). It appears that Riesling does not respond well to oaking (the oak overshadow the fine aromatics of Riesling), Riesling does not like malo lactic fermentation (the milky/buttery tone resulting from this fermentation is also overpowering) and Riesling does not like to blended. Usually most Riesling in the world rank high in purity. I will use a scale from 1 to 3 (1 is low purity, 3 is high purity).

2- Riesling’s fine aromas and a few twists: In general Riesling’s aromas are very dependant on the harvest date. During the ripening season, Riesling’s primary aromas evolve from early citrus tones to floral notes to a ripe stone fruit pallet. The primary aromas can be altered by two very important factors in Riesling. The first one is the amount of Botrytis at the time of harvest that would introduce waxy, honey like flavors. The second one is the propensity for some Riesling to develop a gasoline/petrol nose as it ages.  A minor third one would be the possibility for the winemaker to do some lees aging introducing some yeasty notes and somewhat increasing the weight of a given Riesling. I will use a scale from 1 to 3 (1 is citrus, 2 is floral, 3 is stone fruit), I’ll add a B for Botrytis, P for Petrol and a Y for Yeasty.

3- Sugar – Acid tension: Riesling is a bloody tart varietal and often requires the use of sugar to rebalance the acid in some fashion. They are many styles of Rieslings that tilt that acid/sugar balance toward super dry or super sweet with everything in between (that is why we make 10 different Rieslings at Pacific Rim). This is where the International Riesling Foundation scale comes handy. There is no need to reinvent the wheel here, so I will use the IRF scale’s and rank wine from 1 to 5 (1: Dry, 2:Medium Dry, 3:Medium Sweet, 4:Sweet, 5:Dessert).

Now if I am to qualify some of our wine here is the way I would go:

- Dry Riesling: 3 – 2Y – 1. A pure Riesling with floral notes and some yeastiness tasting Dry.

- Sweet Riesling: 3 – 3 – 3: A pure Riesling with stone fruit notes tasting medium Sweet.

Now if I have to make a broad categorization of Riesling regions:

- Australian: 3 – 1P – 1. Pure Rieslings with citrus note, often some petrol, very dry

- Alsatian: 3 – 2P – 1. Pure Rieslings with floral note, often some petrol, dry

- Mosel: 3 – 2B – 3: Pure Riesling with floral notes, fair amount of Botrytis influence, medium Sweet

- Canadian Ice Wine: 3 – 3B – 5: Pure Riesling with stone fruit nose, botrytis influence, dessert style

- WA classic style (think Wallula, Poet’s Leap, Eroica): 3 – 2 – 2: Pure Riesling, floral aromas and medium Dry

- WA old style (Johannisberg): 3 – 3 – 3: Pure Riesling, stone fruit and medium sweet

Here is to my new nomenclature!

Riesling still at the top

Wednesday, May 5th, 2010

Just reviewed the lastest Nielsen data ending March 6th and Riesling is still the fastest growing varietal in the US in dollars (+10.7 % over last 13 weeks, +8.7% over last 52 weeks). It is ahead of Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon in growth. Riesling is also gaining ground on Syrah (it is now 80% as big as syrah vs 77% a year ago) and could overtake Syrah as the #8 varietal in the country. I’ll let you guess who is #1 through #7! #10 is Zinfandel. GO RIESLING!

Ancient lava flows from Eastern Washington

Thursday, April 29th, 2010

Nielsen domination index

Saturday, April 24th, 2010

I am offically obcessed with the idea that Riesling can be a larger category than Syrah – that is only the first step to the global Riesling domination that we have plans for (hehehe). Looks like we have a shot at seeing Riesling passing Syrah before the end of the year and become the #8 varietal in the country. Right now the index shows the following rank among varietals (52 weeks ending 2/6/10):

- #1: Chardo: 25% MS (marketshare) growing at +2.5% – Yep, still a lot of growth at that size..

- #2: CabSauv: 16% MS +4.8% – American love story with CabSauv. Can we grow Gamay that fast? Surely is not foreign to the Malbec Growth (Malbec is not part of the topd ten and is about half the size of Riesling right now)

- #3: Merlot: 12% MS -1.9% – Keep losing steam. might never recover…

- #4: Pinot Grigio/Gris: 9% MS +3.7% – Wake up folks, this is not that great of a wine

- #5: Pinot Noir: 6% MS +7.3% – Amazing to see PN in #5 now…

- #6: White Zin: 6% MS +0.5% – Do me a favor, drink Riesling instead of this White Zin thing

- #7: Sauv Blanc: 5% MS +7.7% – This is the white we need to follow on the way up

- #8: Syrah: 4% MS -7.5% – Ouch, this varietal is just going back in the dog house

- #9: Riesling: 3% MS + 8.9% – #1 growth in the top ten. ‘nuf said

#10: Zinfandel: 3% MS +3.7% – Yes, Riesling is bigger than Zinfandel

A scoring world

Friday, April 23rd, 2010

Lately I have heard so many wine buyers talking only about scores, scores, scores. I even went to retailers that only buy 90+ wines. This is just plainly bad for our wine industry and for consumers. All those scores are just opinions, not science, not hard facts, just opinions. it does not matter if it is blind or not, with a panel or not. One day consumers and buyers will realize that wine reviews are one opinion from one person at one moment of time (wine is just not like toasters, it can age and change). One day someone is going to give 95 points to a wine that will poison people, it was just an opinion mind you! Moody gave AAA ratings to mortgage back securities, those were also opinions (they recently won a lawsuit against the US governemnt based on their first amendment right to voice an opinion) – at the end of the day the bankers were thinking that Moody’s opinions were good as gold. I think no one will believe a AAA rating is good as gold now. Please be careful with ratings – they are just opinions.

Phoenix Riesling

Monday, April 12th, 2010



We are releasing a new Riesling – we have now up to 10 different Rieslings in our lineup . This new release is a 2009 Riesling that we made in what I would call the “traditional” Johannisberg style (I know, I know, we are not supposed to use this term anymore). So, what is a “J” style? Well, J’s were usually bout 2% residual sugar Riesling and picked around 22.5 Brix (Auslese ripeness level) with about 12.5% of ethanol. It was and still is today the most proeminent style in Washington State. Our version of this American favorute is slightly different (of course) in the way that it is about 2.3% residual sugar and 11.5% ethanol therefore picked at 21.5 Brix (a ripe spatlese ripeness level). Like all of our Rieslings we like to pick grapes earlier than most folks in order to contribute a lot of natural acidity to balance the sugar and also to keep a lower alcohol content. The grapes come from the Yakima Valley, a cooler climate more appropriate for this style I believe. The wine is very fruity (think mango, guava, apricot with a hint of floral notes) and refreshing, a nice addition to the portfolio that does not replicate any other Riesling we make. When I was looking at the Riesling line up a few weeks ago it dawned on me that we have a geometric RS series in our portfolio: 0-2-4-8-16! 0% RS is our Dry Riesling, 2% RS is our new Riesling, 4% RS is our Riesling made from organic grapes, 8% is our sweet Riesling and 16% is our Riesling Vin De Glaciere Selenium Vineyard. Pretty fun, no? Riesling is really enjoying a true rennaissance in this country (likethe Phoenix on this label) and we are proud to be part of it.


Sulfites policy at Pacific Rim

Thursday, April 8th, 2010

Sulfites are sometimes a hot topic, somewhat taboo. I thought I would bring my two cents about what what they are and what we do to minimize our sulfite content at Pacific Rim. Sulfites (read sulphur dioxide if your are a chemist) are used in wines as an antioxidant and as a anti-microorganism – we have residual sugar and malic acid in all our Rieslings which can respectively be degraded by yeasts and bacteria resulting in a stincky cloudy wine with lots of carbonation (lots as if the bottle could explode) – no good. We don’t want any of that so we use a bit of sulfites. Now sulfites is a fairly common preservative used in juices, dry fruit, etc. and . So why is that important? Like everything we eat, sulfites can be the cause of allergies with wine lovers. In all honesty, many more people have allergies to alcohol than sulfites and blame sulfites for the next morning hangover (yes, you did it, you know you did). I happen to have a mild allergy to sulfites and often will feel bad after one glass of heavily sulfited wine, so this is a serious issue for me. At Pacific Rim, we have tried to reduce our sulfite content greatly over the past few years and I was reminded of this lately after  reviewing the results from some analysis we have sent for an export client. DISCLOSURE: we are blessed with low sulfites needs due to the combination of screwcap closures (low oxygen intake in the bottle = low risk of oxidation), sterile fitration at bottling (low risk of microorganism contamination) and natural low pH in Riesling (Sulfites are exponentially more active at low pH) and we naturally need less sulfites in our wines than most winery do. We usually add less than 100mg/L sulfites total for any given wines because this maximum level of sulfites respects the Demeter (Biodynamic) and Organic requirements in the USA. This is about 2.5 times lower than the legal limit. Timing wise, we usually add some at harvest and then a little bit before bottling. Now just FYI, yeasts naturally produce about 20mg/L of sulfites, so we could have 4 to 5 times the natural content in our wines. The wines that I have sent for analysis (Chenin, Dry Riesling, Wallula Single Vineyard, Framboise, Vin De Glaciere) all came below 75 mg/L actually. Those amounts of sulfites are so low that we often have issues with some export market because those levels are below what they judge reasonable. We disagree with those folks respectfully, less sulfites makes for healthier wines and healthier people. Low sulfites policy at Pacific Rim.

Shake and Spill in Chile

Friday, March 5th, 2010


Obviously one cannot be sad enough for the terrible quake that shook Chile this week. It is all more important to me because the earthquake hit a wine producing region in the middle of their harvest. I just cannot imagine the added chaos at all those wineries. I was listening to my favorite podcast while on my bike ride this morning, and the topic of the amount of wine lost last week in Chile came up: 125 million liters. Once in the office I took my calculator to put that number in prospective, that is 33 million gallons or about 194,000 tons of fruit. Well, that is more grapes that we harvest in Washington in a whole year (we’ve harvested 156,000 tons in Washington in 2009).  If that is not enough to put things in prospective, the interviewed person from the Wines of Chile association mentionned that it was “only” 12.5% of the wine they had on hand at that time. We are just a drop in the bucket, aren’t we?